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What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid | Fast2study.com

Definition of Acid:

(According to Arhenious) Acids are those substance which gives hydrogen ion in its aqueous solutions.Or, 

Acid are those substance which has replaceable hydrogen ion (H+). 

Example:- HClO4,  H2CO3,  H3PO4,  H2SO4,  HNO3,  NOH,  H2SO3,  H-COOH,  CH3-COOH,  HNO2.



Other Defination

(According to Lewis):  Those substance which can accept lone pair of electron is called as Lewis acid.

Lone pair accepter → Lewis acid.

Example:-  AlCl3BCl3BF3


What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid


➣Acid is a street name for the compound LSD. So LSD is hallucinogenic drug so Acid is a hallucinogenic drug.

Some Important Acid and its Chemical Formula:

S.N Chemical
Formula
Name
1 HCl Hydrochloric acid
2
H2SO4
Sulphuric acid
3 HNO3 Nitric acid
4 HNO2 Nitrious acid
5 H3PO4 phosphoric acid
6 H3BO3 Boric acid
7 H2CO3 Carbonic acid
8 CH3COOH Acetic acid
9 HCOOH Formic acid
10 H2SO3 Sulphurous acid
11 HI Hydroidic acid
12 HBr Hydrobromic acid
13 HClO3 Chloric acid

Properties of Acid:→

  • It has sour taste.
  • It changes blue litmus paper to red colour.
  • Acid solutions conduct electricity.
  • Acid are highly corossive by nature because it has strong ability to obserb water.
  • Strong acids are strong electrologist it means the aquous solution of strong acid can conduct electricity.

CLASSIFICATION OF ACID

【A】On the basic of source of preparation:


There are two types→

(1) Mineral acid or Inorganic acid

(2) Organic acid

(1) Mineral acid or Inorganic acid:→Those type of acid which are prepared from sertain minerals are called as mineral acid.

      Mineral acid are generally strong acid.

Example:-  HCl,  HNO3,  H2SO4 etc...


Strong Acid: An acid which is completely ionised in water and thus producel a large amount of hydrogen ions (H+) is called strong acid.

Example:-

HCl (aq) → H+(aq) + Cl (aq)


(2) Organic acid:→ The type of acid which contain carbon is called organic acid.
    Organic acid are generally weak acid.
Note:- In addition to carbon Oxygen and Hydrogen are also found in Organic Acid.

General molecular formula:

Example:- 
●Formic Acid
IUPAC name ( Methodic acid )
What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid

●Acetic Acid ( vinegar )

What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid

●Benzoic Acid
What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid
Weak Acid:→ An acid which is partially ionised in water and thus produces a small amount of hydrogen ions is called weak acid.
What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid | Fast2study.com


There are two types of mineral acid or in-organic Acid:
(i) Hydra acid (ii) Oxy acid

(i) Hydra acid:→ Hydrogen containing a strong acids that is halide of hydrogen (HX) are called as Hydra acid.       It can not have oxygen.

Example:-  HFHClHBrHI  etc...

(ii) Oxy acid:→ Those type of acids which contain oxygen atom generally are called as oxy acid. 
Example:-  H2SO4H2SO3HNO3HClOHClO2HClO3HClO4 .


HClO → Hypo-Chlorous acid
HClO2 → Hypo-Chloric acid

HClO3 → Per-Chlorous acid

HClO4 → Per-Chloric acid

Uses of Mineral Acids in Industry:

(i) Sulphuric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilisers, paints, plastics, detergents, chemicals.
(ii) Nitric acid is used for making fertilisers, plastics, dyes.
(iii) Hydrochloric acid is used in dye-stuffs, textile, food
Dilute Acid:→ In dilute acid the constraction of  acid in the solution of acid and water is low it means the amount of acid is less as compair of water.
Concentrated Acid:→ The fall of acid in which the amount of acid in the acid water solution is higher is called concentrated Acid.

Note:-

(i) In any chemical reaction be use dilute acid because dilute acid can give large amount of hydrogen ion (H+) which is not found in concentrated Acid.
(ii) If we want do make any concentrated acid to dilute acid then we most add acid externally into the water.
     We should never odd water into acid because it is a highly exothermic process (evaluation of heat) which can be dangerous to observer.

What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID:

(1) Reaction with active metals:→
When metals whose reactivity is higher than hydrogen reacts with acid then hydrogen gas is produced with salt of metals.
Example:-

2Na + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2
Zn + 2HCl2 ZnCl2 + H2
Cu + HCl X
Ag + HCl X

(2) Reaction with Base:→
When strong acid reacts with a strong base then salt and water are produce, this is known as Neutralisation Reaction.
Example:-
H+Cl (aq) + K+OH K+Cl + H2O

Note:-  (i) This reaction is called Neutralization reaction because the effect of acid and base are cancled by each other so in salt there is no properties of acid and base.
(ii) water is formed due to chemical combination of  H+ ion of the acid and OH of the base.
(iii)  Salt is formed as a result of chemical combination between acidic radical  of the acid and basic radical of the base.

(3) Reaction with Metal Carbonates and Bicarbonates or Hydrogen Carbonate:→
When acid react with metal carbonate (CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3) then water and carbon dioxide gas are formed with metals salts.


What is Acid? Learn what you should know about Acid

(4) Reaction with Metal Oxide: →
When acid react with metal oxide then salt and water are formed.
Example:-
Na2O + HCl NaCl + H2O


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All the Best !!
Team Fast2study

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