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Define and Explain Radioactive Element and Radioactivity


Radioactive Element: 

Those natural elements are in which harmful alpha beta and gamma rays are called Radioactive elements.
        The radioactive element was discovered by Henry Becquerel in 1896.

Radioactivity: Those natural elements are in which emit harmful alpha, beta and gamma rays this process of the phenomenon is called radioactivity.

Radioactive substance: Those substances which show radioactivity is known as a radioactive substance.
       Radioactivity was studied in detail by Rutherford.
 Nuclear Reaction

What is Nuclear Reaction?

Nuclear reaction are those in which components of a nuclei changes accompanied by the release of a tremendous amount of energy.

There are two types of nuclear reaction:-

      (1)  Nuclear fusion reaction
      (2)  Nuclear fission reaction

(1) Nuclear fusion: The process in which two or more nuclei of lighter atoms combined to form a stable and heavy nucleus with the libration of a large amount of energy is called nuclear fusion reaction.
E.g:- Two lighter atoms of deuterium combined form a heavy the nucleus of a helium atom.

1H1 + 1H2  2H4 + energy
1H1 → Hydrogen/protium
1H2  → Deuterium
1H3  → Tritium

1 amu of proton = 1.6 x 10-27 kg
amu – atomic mass unit

Equivalent energy:

E = mc2
   = 1.6 x 10-27 kg x (3 x 108 m/s)2
   = 1.6 x 10-27 kg x 9 x 1016 m2/s2
   = 1.6 x 9 x 10-27 x 1016 kg m2/s2
   = 14.4 x 10-27 + 16 Joule
   = 14.4 x 10-11 Joule

1 ev  =  1.6 x 10-19 c x J/c  =  1.6 x 10-19 Joule
1 J = 1/1.6 x 10-19 ev

E = 14.4 x 10-11 Joule = 14.4 x 10-11/1.6 x 10-19 ev
   = 9 x 10-11-(-19) ev
   = 9 x 108 ev
   = 9 x 108/106 Mev [1 M = 106]
   = 9 x 108-6 Mev
   = 9 x 102 Mev
   = 900 Mev

1 amu = 900 Mev
931 Mev = 1 amu [U]

          The hydrogen bond is based on the nuclear fusion reaction.

(2) Nuclear Fission:- The process in which a heavy radioactive the nucleus is broken into two lighter nuclei with the liberation of a large amount of energy by the Bombardment of the slow velocity of the neutron.

32U235 + 0n1 56Ba141 + 36Kr92 + 30n1 + energy

          An atomic bomb is a base on the principle of nuclear fission.

Types of Fission Reaction:

     (i) Control chain Reaction
     (ii) Uncontrol chain Reaction

(i) Control Chain Reaction: When out of three neutrons released in each step of the reaction is removed and only one is allowed for each step for reaction and hence, control amount of energy released this is known as control chain reaction.
Control Chain Reaction


(ii) Uncontrol Chain Reaction: The type of chain Reaction in which all neutrons released during nuclear reaction allowed for the next set of reaction and so on this is known as an uncontrol chain reaction.

Carbon Dating: Carbon dating is a technology through which we found out the age of the fossil.
     All type of organism has a definite amount of carbon-14 (C14) in its body which has a definite rate of decay. All radioactive substance decay to half of its initial number in a definite interval of time called half-life of the radioactive substance.

Radioactive substance emits Some Following Rays:

 Alfa Rays: Alfa ray consists of a double positive charge helium nucleus.
• Its speed is quit lower than the speed of light.
• When one Alpha particles release mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.
• Its penetration power is quite low.

Beta Rays: Beta ray consists of electron and proton.
• Its speed is slightly lower than the speed of light.
• Its penetration power is more than alpha rays.

Gamma Rays: Gamma rays consists of particles of negligible mass having no charge.
 It's almost a speed equal to the speed of light.
Emits harmful Rays

Causes of Nuclear Reaction:

Due to the instability of the nuclei nuclear reaction takes place.


What is the Advantage of Nuclear Energy?

There are following advantage of nuclear energy:-
  • A large amount of energy is produced per unit mass.
  • It does not produce smoke. It is clean energy.
  • Fission of one atom of Uranium produces 10 million times the energy released by burning of one atom of carbon.

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