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Heating Effect of Electric Current by Fast2study

Heating Effect of Electric current:

When an electric current is passed through a conductor gets heated this phenomenon is known as the Heating Effect of Electric current.
Cause- Collides of electron and conductor atom.
Heating Effect of Electric Current


The law which is given by joule scientist relation between heat and current is called Joule's law of heating effects. 
1st law:- According to this law heat produced by the conductor is directly proportional to the square of current when resistance and time are constant.

i.e.   H ∝ I2   ( R and t is constant ) --- (i)
2nd law:- According to this law heat produced by the conductor is directly proportional to resistance when current and time is constant.
i.e.    H ∝ R     ( I and t is constant ) --- (ii)
3rd law:- According to this law heat produces by the conductor is directly proportional to time when current and resistance is constant.
i.e.    H ∝ t      ( I and R is constant ) --- (iii)

from equation (i), (ii) and (iii)
H ∝ I2Rt 
H = K.I2Rt   when K=1
H = I2Rt 
H = IR x It
H = VIt  
  in the form of potential difference
H = IR x It
H = VQ  [Q=It]
 in the form of charge and potential difference

Heating Element:  Those type of appliance which heats up due to the heating effect of electric current is called the heating element.
example:-  Nichrome, Tungeston.
↪ It is made of materials of high resistance.

Also Read:
• Define and Explain Radioactive Element and Radioactivity

Electric Energy: The total work done by the current in an electric circuit is called electric energy.
↪ It is represented by 'E' .
↪ Its S.I unit is Joule.                                                                                            
↪ Its commercial unit is kilowatt-hour (Kwh).
↪ Its dimension is  [ML2 T -2]
Heating Effect of Electric Current
Suppose an Electric circuit in which 'I' current flow for time 't' during this time is charge 'Q' flows then,
If the potential difference between resistance is 'V' for the main  flow of charge then,
V = W/Q
VQ = W
W = Q x V
W = It x V
W = It.V = E
W = It x IR
W = E =  I2Rt  
W = I2Rt 
Electric energy = Electric power x time
E = P.t

Electric Power: The amount of electric energy consumed in a circuit per unit time is called electric power.
  • It is denoted by ‘P’.
  • It is a scalar quantity.
  • Its dimension is  [ ML2 T -3 ]
  • Its S.I unit is Watt (W) or J/sec.

P = W/t = E/t = VI
P = W/t
P =I2Rt  /t
P =I2R
P = IR x I
P = VI
P = I2R
P = V2/R2 x R

P =V2/R
One watt: If the one-joule work is done in one second by electricity then, the power of electricity is called one watt.
↪Its dimension is   [ ML2 T -3 ]
Note:- Power has also unit Kilowatt, Megawatt, Gigawatt.

Some Largest Unit of Power:

1 Kilowatt = 103 Watt
1 Megawatt = 106 Watt
1 Gigawatt = 109 Watt
1 Wh = 3600 J
Particle and experiment unit of power is horse-power (H.P)
1 H.P = 746 Watt

Commercial Unit of the Electrical Energy: The unit used to measure the electric energy in any traditional center is called the Commercial Unit of Electrical Energy.
  • It is also known as Board of trade unit (B.O.T)
  • In this unit energy measured in Kilowatt hour (kW-h)

1 unit = 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J

One kilowatt-hour: The amount of electrical energy consumed by 1000 watt electrical appliance when it operates for one hour is called One kilowatt-hour.
          One kilowatt is also known as  “One unit”.

Relation between kilowatt-hour and Joule
1 Kwh = 1000 watt x h
1 kwh = 1000 J/sec x h
1 Kwh = 1000 j/sec x 3600 sec

1 Kwh = 3.6 x 106 J

Power Rating of an Appliance: let, take a bulb if the bulb is lighted on a 220 V supply. It consumed 100 W electric power that means 100 J  of electric energy is converted in the filament of the bulb into heat energy and light energy in one second.

Efficiency of an Electric device: The ratio of output power to the input power is called the efficiency of an electric device.
      It is represented by ‘η’
η = output power/input power

Some Essential Components of the house wiring system

Electric Fuse: An electric fuse is a safety device that is used to limit the current in an electric circuit.
• It is a short length thin wire made of a tin-lead alloy having a low melting point.
• It is always connected in series in the wire of the circuit.
• It is provide overloading.

Switches: A switch is an on-off device for current in a circuit that is connected in the live wire.

Earthing (Grounding): Earthing is an appliance which means connecting the metal body buried deep in the earth through the earth-wire.
• It is used for safety measures.

Current Rating of Fuse: The maximum current that can flow through a fuse-wire is called the power or current rating of a fuse.
    The power of a fuse is 10 A, this means that the maximum the current of 10 A can flow through the fuse-wire.

Short Circuit:  When the live wire comes in direct contact with the neutral wire then heavy current passes through the appliance this is called short circuit.

Overloading: Overloading of the electric circuit means that the current circulating in the circuit becomes more than the capacity of components in the circuit to withstand the current.

Thank you
All the Best !!
Team Fast2study

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